THEME:  Fast Charging 

Civilian and military adoption of battery power depends on infrastructure that can provide fast recharging to meet user demands. For military equipment the concern extends to warfighter safety and mission success.

Meeting Logistics

When:  Friday, December 9, 2022 from Noon until 5pm (Lunch provided)
Where:  A. James Clark Hall Forum, University of Maryland, College Park & Zoom
Cost:  None
In person registration: https://ter.ps/CREBFall2022
Zoom registration: https://umd-engr.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_I3JfvTJ-QdO-m-2KL2k86g

Program Overview: Science and Technology of Fast Charging

AGENDA

  • 12:00-1:00 pm – Lunch hosted by the ECS University of Maryland Student Chapter (pizza and soft drinks)
  • 1:00  Welcome by CREB co-hosts, Jim Short & Wesley Henderson
  • 1:10  Dr. Halle Cheesman , ARPA-E
  • 1:30  Dr. Daniel Abraham, Argonne National Laboratory
  • 1:50  Dr. Eric Wachsman, University of Maryland
  • 2:10  Dr. Jan Allen, Army Research Laboratory
  • 2:30  Dr. Sheng S. Zhang, Army Research Laboratory
  • 2:50  Break
  • 3:20  Mr. Rob Anstey, Graphenix Development Inc.
  • 3:40  Dr. Chao-Yang Wang , Penn State University 
  • 4:00  Dr. Eric Dufek , Idaho National Laboratory
  • 4:20  Dr. Matthew Keyser, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • 4:40 Mr. Brian Robert, Ford Motor Company
  • 5:00  Closing discussion led by Wesley Henderson End of Zoom Webinar

Continuing on-campus event - Poster Session and ECS National Capital Section Reception

  • 5:15  Mr. Shannon Reed, ECS Director of Community Engagement
  • 5:30-6pm – Meet & Greet with ECS National Capital Section Officers
 

 

 

Insights on the Fast Charging of Lithium-ion Batteries, Daniel Abraham

Fast charging of lithium-ion batteries, being developed for electric vehicles, is needed to meet customer demands of time-parity with today’s gasoline-powered cars. This presentation is an overview of extreme fast charge studies being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory. Methodologies to monitor electrode polarization, detect Li-plating, examine lithium concentration gradients in electrodes and investigate electrode materials changes, during and after exposure to high currents, will be discussed.

Oxide Anode Materials for Fast-Charge Li-ion Batteries, Jan Allen

Oxide anode materials are of high interest for the development of fast charge Li-ion batteries. Oxide materials offer the advantage of a higher lithium intercalation potential of ~ 1.5-1.6 V versus Li / Li+ relative to graphite which reduces the likelihood of Li plating during fast Li-insertion. Furthermore, the high gravimetric density and multi-electron transfer per transition metal offers the potential for high volumetric energy density on par with graphitic anodes. This talk will cover ARL efforts towards the development of new oxide anode materials to potentially replace the existing, commercialized Li4Ti5O12 oxide anode.

100% Silicon anodes for achieving both higher cell energy density and 600 15-minute fast charging cycles, Rob Anstey

Li-ion cells incur a trade-off between power and energy. Lithium metal anodes are energy dense.  However, absent a host structure or external compression and heat, high charge rates can induce plating that impedes performance.  We overcome the adverse effect through a novel 100% silicon anode having an adhesion layer that chemically and electronically bonds the silicon to an engineered copper foil. This enables higher energy densities and mitigates expansion forces. This technology enables over 600 cycles of 15-minute charging, while increasing cell energy density by >30% relative to comparable graphite cells. This could enable EVs with over 450 miles of range and the ability to charge 250 miles in 15 minutes, for over 150,000 miles of fast charging lifetime. The technology may be applicable to EVTOL and military applications requiring high power and energy densities. The supply chain depends on US feedstocks and European equipment.

EV charging in 5-15 minutes. A review of the ARPA-E, EVs4ALL program, Halle Cheesman

Key to the success of Electric Vehicles are reliable, inexpensive batteries that can charge fast and provide improved performance and range retention in cold weather compared to state-of-the-art commercial options. ARPA-E's EVs4ALL program will increase EV market share by developing next-generation battery technologies to significantly improve EV affordability, convenience, reliability, and safety. One contributor among others to success is the ability to restore 80% of cell capacity in less than 15 minutes.

Extreme fast charging: Identification of failure modes and routes to improve performance, Eric Dufek

Range anxiety is seen as a key limitation by many consumers looking to purchase an electric vehicle. The two routes to alleviate this anxiety are through the development of higher energy batteries and batteries capable of charging in 10 minutes or less. Achieving either target is difficult and presents a suite of challenges spanning from material degradation through cell and electrode design. When performing extreme fast charging, many types of degradation emerge including Li deposition and cathode cracking. Early detection and understanding using electrochemical methods are complicated, but possible if using a multitude of different signatures. Here we describe recent efforts to jointly align electrochemical methods with targeted characterization and advanced analysis to detect failure modes. Specifically, machine learning and other advanced analysis approaches show promise to reduce the time and effort needed to predict life, delineate failure modes, and provide input to electrochemical models. Here we discuss the use of machine learning to perform early failure mode classification on cells used for fast charge applications. Using this information, it is then possible to feedback information for the refinement of advanced charging protocols designed to minimize specific aging pathways.

Battery Thermal Implications Associated with Extreme Fast Charging, Matt Keyser

Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. Incorrect thermal management designs for extreme fast charging conditions could result in cells reaching abuse temperatures and potentially sending the cells into thermal runaway.  Furthermore, the cell and module design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today’s market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regards to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

Automotive Perspectives on EV Battery Fast Charging Enabling Technologies, Brian Robert

With aggressive battery charging for vehicles comes concerns of reduced life and temperature stability. Enabling technologies, such as advanced thermal management and high voltage architectures, aid the charging gap and customer range anxiety. However, as automotive OEMs target increasing electrified vehicle range and decreasing charge time, trade-offs in system design – also considering the potential in emerging solid state cells – create new opportunities and challenges.

Enabling High-Rate Lithium Metal Anodes by Tailored Structures and Interfaces, Eric Wachsman

Oxide-based solid-state Li-batteries (SSLiBs) have the potential to be a transformational and intrinsically safe energy storage solution due to their non-flammable ceramic electrolyte that enables the use of high-capacity Li metal anodes and high voltage cathodes for higher energy density over a much wider operating temperature range. However, their progress has been limited due to electrode/electrolyte interfacial issues. In particular for Li-metal anodes concerns over dendrite formation/propagation and the requirement for elevated temperature and high stack pressure are still prevalent. To eliminate these concerns a rational design of tailored structures and interfaces in Li-metal anodes will be presented. In addition, progress toward full cells using these tailored structures and interfaces will be presented.

Smaller, Faster-Charging Batteries for Affordable and Sustainable Electric Vehicles, Chao-Yang Wang

An asymmetric temperature modulation (ATM) approach to enabling 10-minute fast charging of energy-dense Li-ion batteries in any temperatures (even at -50°C) while still delivering remarkable cycle life will be presented. We further show that smaller, faster-charging batteries are the answer to affordable and sustainable electric vehicles for everyone, everywhere, especially in the era of critical materials and battery shortages. Finally, we discuss a figure of merit for fast charging batteries composed of three metrics simultaneously: charge time (<10 min), specific energy acquired by fast charge (>200 Wh/kg), and cycle number (>1000) under the fast charge condition.

A Guide to Use LiFSI in Fast-charging Electrolytes of Li-ion Batteries, Sheng S. Zhang

Lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) is a magic salt, however, the controversy about the anodic corrosion of aluminum (Al) cathode current collector in its solutions has long remained among the battery community. This presentation aims to clarify the mystery of Al corrosion in LiFSI electrolytes and discuss the suitability of LiFSI as a single salt in low-to-moderate concentration (<2.0 M) electrolytes for high-voltage Li metal and Li-ion batteries. Importantly, it is found that there is a solvent-related “threshold potential”, above which Al is subject to uncontrollable corrosion. In coin cells, LiFSI electrolytes are much more corrosive to stainless steel (SS) spacer than the Al current collector. Most of the previous controversies and failures in the coin cell tests can be attributed to the corrosion of the SS spacer, other than the corrosion of the Al current collector. We concluded that LiFSI electrolytes are suitable for high-voltage batteries as long as at the cathode, the charging voltage is limited to the “threshold potential” and the SS components are avoided. This conclusion is verified by the successful operation of the Li-ion pouch cells where the SS components are absent at the cathode.

Daniel Abraham, Argonne National Laboratory
Daniel conducts research on lithium batteries used in electric vehicles, consumer electronics and grid energy storage. He has authored over 180 articles in peer-reviewed journals and delivered over 350 technical presentations in popular, academic, and industrial settings. His work enables the development of materials and components that enhance battery performance, life, and safety. Dr. Abraham is also a research advisor and mentor to various undergraduate students, graduate students, postdoctoral associates and junior scientists. He has received awards for “exceptional work in developing the next generation of scientists and engineers.”

Jan Allen, Army Research Laboratory
Jan is a Senior Chemist in the Battery Science Branch at DEVCOM Army Research Laboratory. After receiving his Ph.D. from Northwestern University, Allen did post-doctoral work in France and the United States and worked in industry before joining ARL. His current research is focused on battery materials with an emphasis on Li-ion solid state electrodes and electrolytes.

Rob Anstey, Graphenix Development Inc
Rob is the Founder and CEO of Graphenix Development (GDI) in Rochester, New York. In collaboration with ARL and CREB, GDI is investigating pure silicon anodes intended to be compatible with any lithium battery architecture. GDI also does roll-to-roll manufacturing, dispersions, and coatings. Anstey's Doctor of Law is from Northeastern University and he has an undergraduate degree from McGill as well.

Halle Cheeseman, ARPA-E
Dr. Halle Cheeseman has been in the battery business for 35 years contributing to the growth of Alkaline batteries in the 1980’s, emergence of Lithium Ion batteries in the 1990s, and the Electrochemical storage systems in the first two decades of this century.  After senior research and leadership positions in the battery industry at Duracell, Spectrum and Exide, he is now a Program Director for the Advanced Research Program Agency for the US Department of Energy (ARPA-E) and is based in Washington DC.  Dr. Halle Cheeseman has a BSc with honors and a PhD in Chemistry & Materials Science from the University of Nottingham.

Eric Dufek, Idaho National Laboratory
Eric Dufek manages the INL Energy Storage & Electric Vehicle Department. The department studies use, analysis and controls for electric vehicle infrastructure.  His research is into electrochemical systems with an emphasis on Li metal and Li-ion batteries. He seeks to enhance the life of high energy batteries and to charge batteries at high rates.  He has published >80 peer reviewed journal articles in the fields of electrochemistry, batteries, interface modification, immunoassay development and corrosion. His bachelor’s degree is in chemistry from the University of South Dakota; his doctorate in Analytical Chemistry (Electrochemistry) from the University of Wyoming. Before joining INL in 2010 he was a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Utah.

Matthew Keyser, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Matt Keyser is a senior scientist leading the electrochemical energy storage group at NREL.  He has developed finite element thermal and structural models hybrid electric vehicle components. Currently he is growing the NREL electrochemical energy storage laboratory to do material fabrication, safety analysis and characterization, and direct recycling of lithium-ion batteries.  Early in his career he was honored by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Technology Review magazine as one of the Top100 innovators in the world under the age of 35.  Since then he has licensed four patents to industry, received numerous awards including a Governor's Award for High Impact Research, NASA Innovation of the Year Runner-Up, and DOE distinguished Achievement Award.

Brian Robert, Ford
Brian Robert has been a research engineer at the Ford Motor Company for more than 10 years.  He is named on six battery patents.  The previous 9 years he was a staff researcher at Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America.  While at Toyota he earned an M.S. from Wayne State University.  His B.S. is from the University of Michigan.  Both degrees are in physics.  To meet Ford customer desire for long range electric vehicles with batteries amenable to rapid charge, Brian applies thermal management techniques and high voltage architectures intended to increase electric vehicle range, decrease charge time, and maintain battery life.

Eric Wachsman, University of Maryland
Eric is a UMD Distinguished University Professor with appointments in the Departments of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) and Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (CHBE). He is also the Director of the Maryland Energy Innovation Institute and the Immediate Past President of The Electrochemical Society. He has over 270 published papers and 35 patents on solid ion-conducting materials and electrocatalysts, including solid state batteries, solid oxide fuel cells and electrolysis cells and ion-transport membranes, and 4 companies to date have been founded based on his inventions.

Chao-Yang Wang, Penn State University
Dr. Chao-Yang Wang is William E. Diefenderfer Chair Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Professor of Chemical and Materials Science & Engineering at the Pennsylvania State University. He is a fellow of National Academy of Inventors (NAI) and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). Dr. Wang’s expertise covers the transport, materials, manufacturing and modeling of batteries and fuel cells.

Sheng S. Zhang, Army Research Laboratory
Dr. Sheng S. Zhang is a Research Chemist in the Battery Science Branch of the DEVCOM Army Research Laboratory. He has more than 30 years of experience in the research of electrochemical energy storage devices. His current research interests are in fast charging of Li-ion batteries with focus on the electrode and electrolyte materials, as well as the design of the electrodes and cell.

Planning to attend in person?  Please note: There are three airports that service the Baltimore/Washington D.C. region (Dulles, Reagan National and BWI).

Parking on campus can be a bit tricky, however, policies are a bit more relaxed during the summer!

  • Follow this link to the UMD DOTS website to learn more about parking, and how to avoid pesky citations. 
  • You may download a visitor parking map here. Note: The top floor of Regents Drive Garage has the closest visitor parking to A. James Clark Hall.

For information on campus COVID protocol, please follow this link to the 4Maryland website.


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